R e s t o r e d P r i n t s . c o m

ANTIQUE PRINT FAULTS, THEIR CAUSES AND CORRECTIONS

ORIGINAL IMAGE FAULT CAUSE CORRECTED IMAGE
Age Toned Paper Discoloured or beige/brown toned paper Long term exposure to atmospheric pollution especially from coal and tobacco smoke.

 Failure of bleaching agents over time.
toning Corrected
Discoloured dyes Altered tones and colours As above plus medium to long term exposure to ultra-violet light (sunlight).

Early coloured inks generally take on a blue or green cast with partial or major loss of reds. Some metal based pigments become seriously over saturated
Corrected dye tones
Spotting - crushed head louse (central spot). Spotting Decomposed organic material, usually skin flakes, louse and mite faeces or their crushed whole bodies or body parts.

Ink and paint splashes.
Corrects to clean blank paper
Foxing - 18th century print Foxing Fungal and microbial staining usually associated with degradation of organic detritus either in the body of the paper itself or as a follow-on effect from spotting. Greatly accelerated  in a damp environment. Corrects to clean blank paper
Engraving Error Engraving Errors Mistakes made but left uncorrected as the only alternative was to scrap the plate and start again. Corrected engraving error
Blurred outlines due to ink bleed  Blurred Outlines Migration of wet ink along paper fibres, rough paper surface or movement of plate relative to the paper during the impression process.
Blurred outlines corrected 
Ink binder dicolouration Discoloured outlines with stained margins. Decomposition and oxidation  of organic ink binders, particularly guar gum and linseed oil.. Ink Binder stains removed
Colour Overruns Colour overruns Hand coloured prints
Careless original colouring.

Other prints
Low quality printing resulting in poor registration of colour plates - rushed work.
Overruns corrected
Colour Bleeding,
one of the most common faults.
Careless original water-colour work usually the result of an overloaded brush or colouring an adjacent area before the first one has dried properly..
Poor storage and handling stain Dark Patches and Stains

.
Unprotected or damp storage.

Handling with greasy or dirty fingers

Poor quality control in the paper making process.
Corrects to clean blank paper
Mechanical damage Rubbing and Scratches.

Tears and Creases.

Tunnels and holes.
Ill considered attempts at cleaning.

Rough handling.

Poor storage.

Insect attack.


Invisibly repaired.

Modern Dot Matrix Poor Definition Low quality, mass produced  prints.

Typical of most lithographic, and almost all 20th Century
commercially produced prints and publications.
Cannot be corrected.

John Gould's Bubo maximus (c1845) after restoration.
Mouse-over to compare the images.

All restored images are copyright. All rights reserved.

R e s t o r e d P r i n t s . c o m